|1ascorbyl palmitate||A moisturizing vitamin C ester, fat/lipid soluble, antioxidant and preservative|
|2Vitamin E||Antioxidant emollient & occlusive moisturizer with proven effects: protects the epidermis from early stages of ultraviolet light damage; increases the efficacy of active sunscreen ingredients; reduces the formation of free radicals upon skin exposure to UVA rays and other sources of skin stress; reduces transepidermal water loss from skin and strengthens the skin's barrier function; protects the skin barrier's oil (lipid) balance during the cleansing process; reduces the severity of sunburn; preservative (if at the end of the list)|
|3Vitamin C||an antioxidant proven to give you photoprotection by preventing oxidation & inflammation; boosts collagen production; can lighten hyperpigmentation if the concentration is high enough; also used as pH adjuster/buffering agent; fragrance ingredient|
|4retinol||Proven antioxidant anti-wrinkle treatment; induces collagen synthesis, increases skin elasticity, smoother skin & skin lightening effects; treats hyperpigmentation|
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