Aqua/Water/Eau, Arbutin6, Cetyl Alcohol, Glycerin5, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Stearyl Alcohol, Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E4), Ascorbic Acid, Saponins, Sodium Metabisulfite1, BHT, Lactic Acid3, Disodium EDTA2, Butylparaben, Methylparaben, Propylparaben.
|1Sodium metabisulfite||disinfectant, antioxidant (for the formula) and preservative.|
|2disodium EDTA||preservative & product stabilizer; helps the topical penetration of active ingredients; chelating agent|
|3lactic acid||the most moisturizing of AHAs; whitening astringent; exfoliant|
|4Vitamin E||Antioxidant emollient & occlusive moisturizer with proven effects: protects the epidermis from early stages of ultraviolet light damage; increases the efficacy of active sunscreen ingredients; reduces the formation of free radicals upon skin exposure to UVA rays and other sources of skin stress; reduces transepidermal water loss from skin and strengthens the skin's barrier function; protects the skin barrier's oil (lipid) balance during the cleansing process; reduces the severity of sunburn; preservative (if at the end of the list)|
|5Glycerin||A humectant moisturizer; usually used as a base in (light) moisturizers|
|6arbutin||lightened skin in in vitro studies, from hydroquinone; it's unclear how much is needed to show whitening effects. Low concentrations have no effect, while high concentrations of about 5% or more can be as irritating as hydroquinone & may potentially result in unexpected hyperpigmentation|