- Red Marine Algae (Ahnfelita Conccina Extract)
- Sodium Hyaluronate
- Bearberry Extract (Uva Ursi Extract) Licorice Extract and Daisy Extract
- Antioxidants: Co Q10, Vitamins C & E, and Green Tea Extract.
- Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 (Argerline).
1. ↑ green tea – polyphenols ( Green Tea ) proven antioxidant, anti-inflammatory; can prevent collagen breakdown & reduce UV damage to skin. It is generally accepted that 5% green tea extract or polyphenols in the 90% range is an effective concentration in skincare products to produce these effects.
2. ↑ Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 ( Argerline ) humectant moisturizer; an antiwrinkle peptide - Little scientific research has been done to prove this works
3. ↑ Licorice Extract. anti-inflammatory; anti-allergic; the root has been proven to treat hyperpigmentation so its used in whitening products
4. ↑ hyaluronic acid ( Sodium Hyaluronate ) A humectant moisturizer; proven to boost skin's moisture content, reduce inflammation, have cell-communicating abilitites & help prevent moisture loss
5. ↑ Daisy Extract. there is no research showing this extract has any benefit for skin; can cause severe contact dermatitis and is considered unsafe for topical application; however some sources claim it is an alternative to hydroquinone in treating melasma
6. ↑ ubiquinone ( Q10 ) may have potential depigmentation effects; proven moisturizing antioxidant; reduces UV damage; stimulates collagen; anti-inflammatory
7. ↑ arbutin ( Bearberry,Uva Ursi ) lightened skin in in vitro studies, from hydroquinone; it's unclear how much is needed to show whitening effects. Low concentrations have no effect, while high concentrations of about 5% or more can be as irritating as hydroquinone & may potentially result in unexpected hyperpigmentation