2. ↑ Gluconolactone. serves as a skin conditioner/exfoliant (hydrolyses to Gluconic Acid) & chelator; also used as part of a preservative system
3. ↑ Zinc Gluconate. Proven to treat inflammatory acne; also preventative. Reduces the production of Squalane, a component of human sebum.
4. ↑ Amino Acids ( Arginine ) Widely used in moisturizers and emollients because they are thought to help penetrate the skin; have water-binding, antioxidant and wound-healing abilities