1. ↑ cleansing/lathering OR emulsifying agents ( Polysorbate 80 ) depending on the product, this ingredient cleanses; emulsifies; lathers; makes products foamy/creamy & spread better
2. ↑ beta hydroxy acid ( Salicylic acid ) induces exfoliation in oily areas of skin; oil-soluble so can penetrate pores to exfoliate inside; prevents clogged pores; mildly anti-inflammatory; higher concentrations help fade post-acne marks
3. ↑ hyaluronic acid ( Sodium hyaluronate ) A humectant moisturizer; proven to boost skin's moisture content, reduce inflammation, have cell-communicating abilitites & help prevent moisture loss
4. ↑ Alcohol denat.. Alcohol Denat. is used in skincare and cosmetics as a/an anti-foaming, antimicrobial, astringent, that masks the scent of other ingredients in a formula aka masking, solvent to dissolve things in a formula, viscosity controlling ingredient.
5. ↑ Niacinamide. Proven healing antioxidant; stimulates collagen; some UV protection; reduces hyperpigmentation; anti-inflammatory; anti-acne; anti-rosacea
7. ↑ Vitamin E ( Tocopheryl ) Antioxidant emollient & occlusive moisturizer with proven effects: protects the epidermis from early stages of ultraviolet light damage; increases the efficacy of active sunscreen ingredients; reduces the formation of free radicals upon skin exposure to UVA rays and other sources of skin stress; reduces transepidermal water loss from skin and strengthens the skin's barrier function; protects the skin barrier's oil (lipid) balance during the cleansing process; reduces the severity of sunburn; preservative (if at the end of the list)