Last Amazon price update was: May 11, 2022 8:24 pm
1. ↑ Niacinamide ( Niacin ) Proven healing antioxidant; stimulates collagen; some UV protection; reduces hyperpigmentation; anti-inflammatory; anti-acne; anti-rosacea
2. ↑ retinol ( Vitamin A ) Proven antioxidant anti-wrinkle treatment; induces collagen synthesis, increases skin elasticity, smoother skin & skin lightening effects; treats hyperpigmentation
3. ↑ green tea – polyphenols ( Green Tea ) proven antioxidant, anti-inflammatory; can prevent collagen breakdown & reduce UV damage to skin. It is generally accepted that 5% green tea extract or polyphenols in the 90% range is an effective concentration in skincare products to produce these effects.
4. ↑ rosemary extract ( Rosemary ) antimicrobial antioxidant with a calming effect; but its fragrant components can cause irritation if present in large amounts. If listed at the end of the ingredient list, it’s likely added in a small amount.