Witch Hazel, L-Castor Oil Methyl Glycol, L-Ascorbic Acid, L-Arbutin, Kojic Acid, Quinchona Extract, L-Lactic Acid, D-Boldine, Licorice Extract, Resveratrol, L-Retionl AGP, Xanthan Gum
1. ↑ hydrogenated castor oil ( Castor ) used as an oily base ingredient; with PEG it's a non-ionic surfactant and is used as a solubilizer for essential oils.
2. ↑ Licorice Extract. anti-inflammatory; anti-allergic; the root has been proven to treat hyperpigmentation so its used in whitening products
3. ↑ Witch Hazel. fragrant astringent; antioxidant & anti-irritant properties (some forms can be irritating, click to read why)
7. ↑ Vitamin C ( L-Ascorbic Acid ) an antioxidant proven to give you photoprotection by preventing oxidation & inflammation; boosts collagen production; can lighten hyperpigmentation if the concentration is high enough; also used as pH adjuster/buffering agent; fragrance ingredient
8. ↑ thickener ( Xanthan Gum ) thickens/stabilizes the product; generally, the more thickening agents used in formulating a cream, for example, may enhance its stability, but can also cause difficulty in spreading.
9. ↑ arbutin ( L-Arbutin ) lightened skin in in vitro studies, from hydroquinone; it's unclear how much is needed to show whitening effects. Low concentrations have no effect, while high concentrations of about 5% or more can be as irritating as hydroquinone & may potentially result in unexpected hyperpigmentation