Purified water, Glycolic Acid, Alpha-Arbutin (Bearberry Extract), Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice Root Extract), Xanthan Gum, Kojic Acid, Glycerin, Sodium Hydroxide, Phenoxyethanol, Ethylhexylglycerin
1. ↑ licorice extract ( Glycyrrhiza ) anti-inflammatory; anti-allergic; the root has been proven to treat hyperpigmentation so its used in whitening products
3. ↑ Glycolic Acid. Proven to reduce fine lines & wrinkles; hyperpigmentation; smooths, exfoliates & thickens skin; increases skin hydration & elasticity; good melasma treatment
4. ↑ preservatives ( Phenoxyethanol ) Used as a preservative or enhances the efficacy of preservatives
7. ↑ thickener ( Xanthan Gum ) thickens/stabilizes the product; generally, the more thickening agents used in formulating a cream, for example, may enhance its stability, but can also cause difficulty in spreading.
9. ↑ Arbutin. lightened skin in in vitro studies, from hydroquinone; it's unclear how much is needed to show whitening effects. Low concentrations have no effect, while high concentrations of about 5% or more can be as irritating as hydroquinone & may potentially result in unexpected hyperpigmentation