1. ↑ Arbutin. lightened skin in in vitro studies, from hydroquinone; it’s unclear how much is needed to show whitening effects. Low concentrations have no effect, while high concentrations of about 5% or more can be as irritating as hydroquinone & may potentially result in unexpected hyperpigmentation
2. ↑ preservatives ( Grapefruit Extract ) Used as a preservative or enhances the efficacy of preservatives
3. ↑ Ethoxydiglycol. Ethoxydiglycol is used in skincare and cosmetics as a/an humectant moisturizing, fragrance, solvent to dissolve things in a formula ingredient.
4. ↑ Fragrance. Fragrance in skin care is like spraying perfume on your face. Smells nice, but potentially irritating and damaging to your skin’s acid mantle. Especially if these ingredients are high up on the ingredient list.