1. ↑ Vitamin C ( Ascorbic Acid ) an antioxidant proven to give you photoprotection by preventing oxidation & inflammation; boosts collagen production; can lighten hyperpigmentation if the concentration is high enough; also used as pH adjuster/buffering agent; fragrance ingredient
4. ↑ Copper Pca. Copper Pca is used in skincare and cosmetics as a/an humectant moisturizing ingredient.